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Category: Cardiac Function

Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (10)

Second, the area of color-flow jet used to assess the severity of valvular regurgitation may be dependent on factors other than regurgitant volume, such as jet velocity, chamber compliance, ventricular function, and the eccentricity of the jet. Third, although the same criteria for determining valvular sclerosis and annular calcification were utilized both in older and…

Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (9)

Although our finding of tricuspid regurgitation in 68 percent of our patients is somewhat less than the 80 percent to 90 percent reported in detailed research studies performed for evaluation of right-sided cardiac pressures, the prevalence reported in this study is similar to that reported in several studies of “normal” volunteers but considerably higher than…

Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (8)

These data are particularly important, especially considering the increasing diffusion of Doppler echocardiography into community practice. The finding that 94 percent of “normal” subjects have valvular regurgitation of at least one valve raises issues with regard to patient well-being, employability, insurability, and endocarditis prophylaxis recommendations. In fact, recent data from Olmsted County, Minnesota, indicated that…

Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (7)

Of those with measurable right-sided pressures, 57 percent had a peak right ventricular and pulmonary artery systolic pressure ^30 mm Hg, and only 13 percent (or 6 percent of all patients) had pressures ^40 mm Hg. Of those with measurable RAP, 93 percent had pressures <10 mm Hg and only 7 percent had an estimated…

Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (6)

Results The clinical characteristics, including age, sex, and reason for Doppler echocardiographic referral, are listed in Table 1. As demonstrated in Figure 1, in the majority of patients (94 percent), valvular regurgitation was detected by Doppler in at least one valve, and in many (56 percent), regurgitation was detected in two or three valves (mitral,…

Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (5)

In borderline cases, the severity grading of aortic regurgitation was influenced by the intensity of the continuous-wave regurgitant envelope. (3) Pulsed-Doppler evaluation of descending thoracic aortic flow was analyzed. Aortic regurgitation was graded as trivial or mild if no diastolic reversal was present, moderate if reversal was present only in the first half of diastole,…

Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (4)

Fifty studies were reinterpreted by one echocardiographer (C.J.L.), who was blinded to the original interpretation, to determine intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility for prevalence of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. Of these 50 studies, 25 were originally interpreted by the same echocardiographer and the others by 1 of 2 different staff echocardiographers. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities…

Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (3)

The presence and severity of valvular regurgitation were assessed retrospectively from review of a detailed Doppler echocardiographic data base. Valvular regurgitation, particularly of the mitral, tricuspid, and aortic valves, was reported if definite regurgitation was identified by any Doppler technique (particularly color-flow Doppler and continuous-wave Doppler, although occasionally with pulsed- Doppler evaluation for aortic regurgitation…

Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (2)

Methods Patients During a 7-month period, 3,000 echocardiographic examinations were performed at the Ochsner Medical Institutions, New Orleans, and of these, 1,800 studies were performed with Doppler echocardiography (as ordered by the referring physicians), including continuous-wave, pulsed-wave, and color-flow Doppler techniques. From these Doppler echocardiographic studies, we identified patients with structurally normal M-mode and 2D…

Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (1)

Since the introduction of echocardiography into clinical practice in the 1960s, there has been a marked increase in its utilization, with a sixfold increase in utilization noted in a population-based study during the past decade. Doppler echocardiography has also markedly increased since its introduction in the early 1980s and its routine clinical use since the…

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