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Category: Increased in smokers

Nonuniformity of diffusing capacity: DISCUSSION (6)

Although we did not measure carboxy-hemoglobin in the smokers in this study, most of whom reported smoking in the 2 h before testing, it would likely have been elevated, accounting for most of the apparent reduction in DLcoSb-3EQ measured from the total sample in smokers compared with nonsmokers . DLcoSb-3EQ measured from the total sample…

Nonuniformity of diffusing capacity: DISCUSSION (5)

Previous reports found that the conventional single breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLcoSb) was reduced in smokers and correlated with macroscopic disease, as detected by CT scan techniques . However, in seated patients at rest DLcoSb was insensitive to the interregional nonuniformity in the distribution of emphysema that often preferentially affects the apex of…

Nonuniformity of diffusing capacity: DISCUSSION (4)

Abnormalities in the phase III nitrogen slope in a group of healthy smokers with otherwise normal lung function have been previously reported for SBWvc, but only when the smokers forcibly exhaled to Rv immediately before performing the SBWvc manoeuvre . The proposed mechanism for this effect of smoking was that the rapid forced exhalation just…

Nonuniformity of diffusing capacity: DISCUSSION (3)

Two possible mechanisms could explain this observation. First, the decrease in Di and the shallower Sn with breath holding for SBWSM may both be explained by the common effect of small airway inflammation and/or regional loss of elastic recoil on intraregional convective dependent inhomogeneity, the interaction of convection and diffusion at peripheral branch points, or…

Nonuniformity of diffusing capacity: DISCUSSION (2)

Smoking produces a number of pathological lesions in the lung . Recent observations using computed tomography (CT) revealed surprisingly common abnormalities in smokers with relatively normal lung function. The abnormalities consisted of ground glass attenuation, micronodules and diffuse emphysematous changes in smokers, but these changes were not found in nonsmokers . Pathologically, ground glass attenuation…

Nonuniformity of diffusing capacity: DISCUSSION (1)

The most remarkable finding in this study was that Di was significantly higher in smokers for SBWSM at 0 s of breath holding and correlated with cumulative pack-years of smoking. The fact that, for these manoeuvres, Di correlated with both age and pack-years of smoking in smokers, but was not affected by age in nonsmokers…

Nonuniformity of diffusing capacity: RESULTS (3)

SBWvc: DLcosb-3EQ measured from the whole sample was slightly lower in smokers (Table 1). DI was significantly increased in smokers (Table 1; P<0.05) and correlated with age in smokers (r =0.48; P<0.001) but not in nonsmokers, and with pack-years of smoking (r =0.55; P<.001) (Figure 6). However, there were no differences between smokers and nonsmokers…

Nonuniformity of diffusing capacity: RESULTS (2)

Effect of 10 s of breath holding on SBWsm: DLcoSb-3EQ from the total alveolar gas sample was similar between smokers and nonsmokers (Table 1). For DLcoSb-3EQ measured from small alveolar gas samples there was markedly less deviation of all four samples from DLcoSb-3EQ measured from the total sample (Figure 2). However, the pattern of change…

Nonuniformity of diffusing capacity: RESULTS (1)

The characteristics of the smoking and nonsmoking groups, which have been previously reported , were similar in terms of sex distribution (smokers: 12 women and nine men; nonsmokers: 10 women and 11 men), age (smokers 39±8 years; nonsmokers 38±7 years, mean ± SD) and height (smokers 172±10 cm; nonsmokers 174±10 cm). There were no significant…

Nonuniformity of diffusing capacity: PATIENTS AND METHODS (3)

Di described the degree to which the four DLcoSb-3EQ values measured from the four alveolar gas samples deviated from the single DLcoSb-3EQ value measured from the entire alveolar gas sample by calculating the root-mean-square difference of the normalized DLcoSb-3EQ values (Figure 1). Di quantified the degree of nonuniformity of DLcoSb-3EQ measured from the four small…

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