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Patients With Normal Twodimensional Echocardiograms (6)

The clinical characteristics, including age, sex, and reason for Doppler echocardiographic referral, are listed in Table 1. As demonstrated in Figure 1, in the majority of patients (94 percent), valvular regurgitation was detected by Doppler in at least one valve, and in many (56 percent), regurgitation was detected in two or three valves (mitral, tricuspid, and aortic).
Mitral Regurgitation
Mitral regurgitation was detected by Doppler echocardiography in 73 percent of our study patients (Table 2), with the majority (67 percent of all patients) having either trivial or mild regurgitation. Moderate mitral regurgitation was identified in 6 percent of patients. Although the presence of mitral regurgitation was not related to age (Fig 2), the prevalence of moderate mitral regurgitation did appear to be directly age related (Fig 3). In fact, moderate mitral regurgitation was three to four times more prevalent (p<0.05) in patients aged >50 years than in those aged ^50 years.
Tricuspid Regurgitation
Tricuspid regurgitation was detected in 68 percent of patients (Table 2), again with the majority having trivial or mild tricuspid regurgitation (63 percent of all patients). As with mitral regurgitation, the severity (Fig 3) but not the prevalence (Fig 2) of tricuspid regurgitation was related to age (p<0.05). Estimation of right ventricular and pulmonary artery systolic pressures was possible in 91 (44 percent) patients, with the mean pressure estimated to be 31 ± 8 mm Hg (Table 3).

Table 1—Clinical Characteristics of the Study Population (n=206)

Characteristic No. (%)
Age, yr
Range 15-86
Mean ± SD 47 ±4
Sex, male.-female 66 (32):140 (68)
Reasons for referral
Global and regional ventricular function 56 (27)
Murmur 47 (23)
Mitral valve prolapse 21 (10)
Hypertension 16 (8)
Pulmonary hypertension 6 (3)
Ventricular hypertrophy 4 (2)
Pericardial disease 4 (2)
Not listed 52 (25)

Table 2—Prevalence and Severity of Doppler-Detected Mitral, Tricuspid, and Aortic Regurgitation in Patients With Normal Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms (n=206)

Type of Regurgitation No.(%)
None 56 (27)
Trivial 56 (27)
Mild 82 (40)
Moderate 12 (6)
Severe 0 (0)
None 66 (32)
Trivial 60 (29)
Mild 70 (34)
Moderate 10 (5)
Severe 0 (0)
None 181 (88)
Trivial 11 (5)
Mild 10 (5)
Moderate 4 (2)
Severe 0 (0)

Table 3—Estimation of Bight Ventricular and Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure Based on Tricuspid Regurgitation Signals and Inferior Vena Cava Size and Respiratory Dynamics

Pressure, mm Hg No. (%)
Estimated right ventricular and pulmonary artery
systolic pressure
Not reported 115 (56)
<30 52 (25)
31-39 27 (13)
40-49 10 (5)
>50 2 (1)
Estimated right atrial pressuret
Not reported 6 (3)
<5 20 (10)
5-10 166 (80)
10-15 14 (7)
>15 0 (0)


Figure 1. Prevalence of Doppler-detected regurgitation of 1, 2, or 3 valves (mitral, tricuspid, and aortic) and relationship with age in patients with normal two-dimensional echocardiograms (n = 206).


Figure 2. Prevalence of Doppler-detected mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation and relation to age in patients with normal two-dimensional echocardiograms (n = 206).


Figure 3. Prevalence of moderate or severe mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation by Doppler criteria and relationship with age in patients with normal two-dimensional echocardiograms (n = 206).

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